Ali Ibn Abi Talib part 2

Ali Ibn Abi Talib

Ali Ibn Abi Talib at the time of Abu Bakr as-Sideeq

Ali’s oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr as Caliph After the death of the Prophet Muhammad, there were a number of issues that needed addressing from them was the leadership of the Muslims. Abu Bakr was made the Caliph and the Muhajiroon and Ansar came forward and gave him the pledge of allegiance. There are reports that allege the delay in Ali’s swearing allegiance to Abu Bakr, as well as az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam’s delay in doing so, but most of these reports are not sound. As a matter of fact, Ali was sincere to Abu bakr, preferring that which was in the best interests of Islam and Muslims to anything else. When Abu Bakr promised to fight the apostates himself, Ali recognised the danger that posed to the survival of Islam. It was narrated from Ibn Umar that Ali said to Abu Bakr: ”I shall say to you what the Messenger of Allah said on the day of Uhud: ‘Keep your sword sheathed, and do not cause us grief by your lord.’ Go back to Madinah, for by Allah, if we were to lose you, Islam would never prosper after that.” Abu Bakr went back.

Ali at the death of Abu Bakr as-Sideeq

Ali was one of those whom Abu Bakr consulted as to who should become caliph after his death. Ali’s opinion was that Umar should become Caliph after Abu Bakr.

Ali at the time of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab

Ali was a senior member of the select group of Umar’s state: indeed he was the main consultant. Umar knew and appreciated Ali’s virtue, his understanding of Islam, his wisdom, he had a very good opinion of him. Umar said about him: “the best of us in judiciary matters is Ali” Ali was very close to Umar and he supported him. He did not restrict his assistance, advice or suggestions from him. Umar would consult Ali on military expeditions. When Umar went to Palestine, to receive the keys to the city he left Ali in charge of Madina. Ali was also part of the electoral council to choose the third caliph which was appointed by Umar.

Ali during the time of Uthman ibn Affan

Uthman was elected as the third caliph from the committee which Umar had laid out. This consultative process and the selection of the caliph were supervised by Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf who demonstrated the consultative process in a systematic fashion for the first time. Ali, presented a major role during the incitement to rebellion against Uthman. Ali defended Uthman by offering him advice and facing the provincial opposition coming from Egypt and Iraq. Ali and his sons defended Uthman with their lives and they were ready to fight these rebels, but Uthman refused killing people for his sake, it resulted in the brutal assassination of Uthman by the rebels

Ali becomes the leader of the believers

After the martyrdom of Uthman, the companions asked Ali to take charge, initially he refused until he put the matter to the people. Inside the blessed masjid of the Prophet Muhammad the overwhelming majority wanted Ali as their leader, hence he became their leader. So, one the 18th Dhul Hijjah 35 AH Uthman was martyred and Ali on the 25th of Dhul-Hijjah 35AH became the leader. There was a consensus over the appointment of Ali as the fourth caliph. Ali’s had to tackle some major problem immediately, he had to capture and punish the killers of Uthman, he had to reunite the Ummah and bring back it’s stability. Problems were further escalated in Madina by the presence of Abduallah ibn Saba and his illegal party was conspired to break down the Islamic system. This party did not follow instructions and caused great mischief on the land.

The Battle of Camel & The Battle of Siffen (37 AH)

These are two major battles that took place between Muslims led by senior Companions, in which many died. They both were a direct result of the assassination of the third Caliph Uthman. Senior companions having different approaches on how to bring the criminals involved to justice. These differences stirred by hypocrites led to many misunderstands and eventually civil war, leaving the Muslim community disjointed and weak. For more details see Islamic Courses Online, see course ‘Rightly Guided Caliphs’. This topic is one that requires careful study as many books have been written by those who discredit and misrepresent the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. One must understand correct referencing of narrations and be able to authenticate these narrations before making commentary on any companion of the Prophet Muhammad.

The martyrdom of Ali Ibn Abi Talib

Ali, Ameer al Momineen, fought the rebellious group, this is clear evidence and proof that he was in the right when he fought the people of Syria and that he was closer to the truth than Mu’awiyah. As the Prophet said: “A group will secede from my Ummah at a time of division among the Muslims, and they will be killed by the group that is closer to the truth..” On the night of his martyrdom, Ibn Al-Tiyah came to him to call him for the prayer when the dawn appeared. At this time, Ali was resting, so he came back a second time while Ali was still resting, so he came for a third time. Then Ali stood and walked to the masjid. When he got to the small door, Ibn Muljam sprang out and stabbed him. Ali died in 17th of Ramadan, 40 AH. His caliphate lasted a total of five years. The battle of Nahrawan left a deep wound in the souls of the Kharijiteis which the passage of time only made more painful and sorrowful, so a group of them decided to murder Ali in vengeance for their brethren who had been slain at Nahrawan. See Islamic Courses Online to learn more about these sects and their detrimental effect on the Ummah.

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